Why should we use the term Existence instead of Universe?
Here, we are going to discuss why should we call our Universe as a part of Existence and what are the things which could exist beyond our Universe.
The word Existence has been carefully chosen instead of Creation or Universe or Multiverse because here it is representing the Entire Existence (from here onwards denoted by Existence / EE on many occasions) which can exist.
We have used the word Existence instead of Creation because creation can be considered to come under the definition of Existence (EE). Existence is a bigger entity that includes any entity that has been created anytime and also the entities that always existed.
Regarding the word Universe, if anything exists beyond it (outside or before/after) then it can also be said to be the part of Existence. Hence in case of Multiverse (more universes) exists outside of our universe then it can also be included in the definition of Existence. In other case of nothing existing beyond our current universe, then Existence would be equal to universe without changing the definition of universe. It will mean that the universe is Entire Existence and nothing exists beyond it.
Considering above, Bigbang can also be said to be a part of Existence. Limitation of science ceases the opportunity to observe beyond this specific point as all the laws of physics break, it means we cannot observe anything beyond it with our current technology.
Existence and physical entities:
Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality. In philosophy, it refers to the ontological property of being. In this research, the word Entire-Existence denoted by ‘EE’ has been particularly chosen as it fits into all the criteria mentioned below.
1. EE is the one all inclusive entity that includes Entire Creation i.e. observable Universe and the Universe/Multiverse beyond observable limits, both.
2. EE is self-existing entity by itself because nothing else existed beyond to create it. EE consists of all entities that ever existed or existing now or ever will exist.
3. EE is a multi-dimensional entity which has always been changing its state continuously. The dimensions such as Mass, Length, Time, Temperature etc. are the mathematical construct to measure/describe the state of EE/part of EE.
4. EE consists of all other entities such as matter, antimatter, waves, energy, force fields, spatial expanse (Spatial expanse includes emptiness and non emptiness both) etc.
Entire-Existence (EE) can be defined as the one all inclusive, self-existing multi-dimensional entity, it consists of all entities that ever existed or existing now or ever will exist.
Non-Existence (NE) can be considered as an exclusion from Entire Existence. It can be defined as an entity that is not the part of EE and therefore it cannot exist anywhere anytime.
It can be little confusing that “Non-Existence” word exist. These words are just a symbol to represent non-existing but actual entity does not exist. The definition of Non-Existence itself defines it cannot exist anywhere anytime.
Particular state of Existence:
It can be defined as a particular state with no change of state (no motion at all) of any entity of Existence. This includes matter, antimatter, waves, energy, force fields, spatial expanse of Existence etc.
In simple words it is like a picture captured of a moving object.
The duration of this particular state can be represented as “Δ t = 0”
Change of state of Existence:
It can be defined as the change of state (any motion) of any single or multiple entity of Existence that happened. This includes matter, antimatter, waves, energy, force fields, spatial expanse of Existence etc.
The duration of this change of state can be represented as “Δ t ≠ 0”
Spatial expanse of Existence:
It can be defined as a physical entity (part of Existence) which can contain nothing inside it (emptiness) or some physical entity filling it (non-emptiness).
All physical entities are present in the infinite spatial expanse of Existence very similar to a particle/wave of light penetrating into the water and getting absorbed. This spatial expanse of Existence could be so vast that if we consider our universe as a small particle of light then the spatial expanse might be equal to the Pacific Ocean or more. This example is just for an illustration purpose as spatial expanse could be infinite in nature.
There is a theory of presence of dark matter (it has never been detected directly) in the emptiness of our universe due to which our universe is expanding exponentially. It might be possible that our universe is just getting absorbed into the vast infinite spatial expanse of Existence. (The detailed discussion of this topic has not been included in this book as it is a full research topic to cover).
Note: Vacuum does not mean spatial expanse, it just represents emptiness, while spatial expanse includes vacuum and non-vacuum both.
By above definitions, now we have a better understanding of Existence, Non-Existence, State of Existence, Spatial expanse of Existence
As we can see that a continuous change of state of Existence is happening which is very well defined by the laws of existence itself. Even if hypothetically, there is a non-change of state of existence, then no one would be able to observe it. As there would be no change of state (no progression of thoughts to observe) inside Existence and nothing is existing beyond it to observe.
According to current theories of science, this continuous change of state of existence can be explained by two theories i.e. Second law of thermodynamics and Moment of inertia. However both might not be able to explain it fully.
Second law of thermodynamics:
Entropy is a concept that defines the energy in a system will spread out through the space available to it until it reaches the state of equilibrium. However, if the system’s energy is in a low entropy state, the rate of spreading out of energy would be high and when the system would reach in high entropy state (near to equilibrium), the spreading out of energy will slow down. The second law of thermodynamics thus states the energy from a system tends to spread out, until finally it is evenly distributed and reaches equilibrium.
Since our early universe, the energy is mainly concentrated in stars separated by low temperature vacuum outside, so it can be seen that there is continuous flow of energy from stars to into the vast expanse of universe, hence the entropy of the universe is increasing according to the second law of thermodynamics. We can see that second law of thermodynamics applies to all big stars and to all daily life activities as well.
The moment of inertia:
Newton’s first law of motion states that anything which is in a continuous motion will remain in motion and the thing which is in rest would remain in rest until unless any external force is applied on it. This law applies to almost all physical entities and it is called as moment of inertia of object.
If everything in the Existence would stop for certain time duration including all motions from an atom to huge galaxies, such as: from the small electron revolving round the proton to the planets revolving the sun and also the progression of thoughts of the mind (brain process information by some electrochemical activities which is a part of physical entity), then no one would be able to notice the passage of time as already discussed earlier.
In this hypothetical case when Entire Existence would stop (no motion) with no change of state, then it will also create a problem with the law of moment of inertia, as such there would be no moment of inertia in any of the existing entity to re-run at same pace again without any external force applied on it.
Considering both these above theories, we can conclude that the state of Existence is always changing and there is always a continuous motion well defined by physical laws of existence.
Next we will discuss whether there was (any motion) change of state of existence before bigbang or not.
In general terms we know that something physical can only exist with some duration in time and some volume in space. According to modern physics the universe started with a point of Initial Singularity with a Bigbang explosion and there was no spacetime beyond it.
This interpretation leaves us with different set of possibilities; whether there was any entity of Existence beyond it or there was Non-Existence at all.
There are some theories which describe the state and source of initial singularity. These theories are being developed in order to explore the possibilities of any entity of existence beyond Bigbang.
Such as: Initial singularity came from Non-existence to Existence, second possibility suggests that it came from Big-bounce (Big-crunch) Quantum fluctuation of earlier universe and the third possibility states that initial singularity was Infinitely existed etc.
Case 1: Non-existence to Existence
In the case where point of initial singularity got self created from Non Existence (NE), then the chances of self creation of point of singularity from NE outside of our universe is infinitely high (our universe can be considered to be covered by NE all around), hence the chances of such huge explosions like Bigbang would also be very high. However no such phenomenon has been observed yet because such a massive explosion would definitely create a sort of havoc in our universe. Fortunately, this possibility has not been predicted by many physicists as it does not provide any strong reasoning behind it and it also lacks the description of cause / source of initial singularity itself.
Case 2: Big-bounce (Big-crunch) Quantum fluctuation
This theory predicts that our universe will end up by opposite phenomena of Bigbang and it will shrink down to singularity again known as Big-crunch. Once our universe will expand and reach upto a certain extent, and then the process of contraction will start eventually reaching to point of singularity again. Accordingly, the earlier Big-crunch’s material from previous universe was the source of matter and cause for initial singularity. According to this theory there must be a change of state of existence before our universe was born. It leads us to consider the infinite cycles of Bigbang and Big-crunch happened earlier. So some absolute dimensions are required to measure those cycles of existence because current spacetime dimension cannot measure that part of existence.
This theory also suggests a different view that there may be potentially infinite number of parallel universes in the disconnected time lines, this creates the possibility of multidimensional time in which other dimensions of time can sometimes interact or merge into one but we may not have been able to observe it yet. These multiple universes could be the cause of initial singularity. Here again we need the absolute dimensions to understand and measure that part of existence because these imaginary timelines are not yet well defined to measure Existence.
Case 3: Initial Singularity existed infinitely
The third possibility is that the initial singularity was self existing infinitely without any external source and any previous universe/multiverse. The initial singularity itself was the source of all material of universe and nothing existed/existing outside of that.
So the question arises: whether there was a change of state in the initial singularity or it just remained in a particular state of existence?
If the initial singularity remained in a particular state of existence and there was no change of state, then there must be an external cause (it could be a wave or particle or anything which we don’t know yet) for Bigbang to occur because no change of state was happening inside initial singularity. Initial singularity should have remained in that particular state of existence infinitely, it could not explode unless any external cause interacted to it. Hence we must agree that there was a cause outside initial singularity, let say it was “Cause X”. This Cause X can be considered as infinite in nature else we have to consider another “Cause Y” for this “Cause X” to occur and so on. These mentioned Causes must be considered as part of existence according to our definition of Existence. To measure that existence, we need some absolute dimensions because that part of existence is outside of that initial singularity where spacetime dimension did not exist.
And, if the initial singularity was in a continuous change of state of existence since infinity, then we can consider it as a valid reason that nothing existed outside. This is a also a valid justification for Bigbang to occur due to internal cause. Once again, we need absolute dimensions to measure that change of state of existence for initial singularity.
Considering all the above cases for description of initial singularity, we can conclude that:
The Bigbang explosion is certainly not the start of Existence however it could be considered as the start of our universe only. There is an infinite chain of causes behind the bigbang which could be anyone of the above mentioned theories. These causes must be considered as part of Existence as per our definition. The initial cause of all the causes and the initial source of all the sources is still very far from us to be understood, but now we know that there was existence of some entities existing beyond the initial singularity.
Results from the above discussion:
· There is an Infinite Existence beyond Bigbang explosion and initial singularity.
· Bigbang is a part of Existence and the cause/source of Bigbang must be considered into account for further exploration of Existence.
· There are currently no dimensions available to measure the Existence beyond initial singularity (imaginary timeline which is not well defined to measure existence and spacetime does not exist beyond it).
To measure existence beyond bigbang (initial singularity), we are going to explore absolute dimensions. In next chapter we are going to consider Ab. Time and Ab. Space as two separate dimensions to measure Existence. Now we are moving forward with next question:
What is ab. Time and ab. Space?